Beginner's Guide to Technical SEO

A Beginner’s Guide To Technical SEO



Bhaskar Varshney

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What is Technical SEO?

Technical SEO refers to the process of optimizing your website’s infrastructure and underlying code, making it easier for search engines to crawl, index, and rank your content. It plays a vital role in ensuring your website is easily discoverable by search engines and offers an optimal user experience. While on-page and off-page SEO focus on content and backlinks, technical SEO addresses the website’s foundational aspects.

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In this guide, we’ll explore the various factors that contribute to technical SEO, discuss how to optimize your website for search engines, and introduce tools to monitor and analyse your website’s performance.

Key Technical Factors and Optimization Techniques

Site Speed:

Website loading speed is a crucial factor for both user experience and search engine rankings. A faster website improves user engagement, reduces bounce rates, and is favoured by search engines like Google.

To optimize site speed:

  • Compress images using tools like TinyPNG or ShortPixel.
  • Minify CSS, JavaScript, and HTML files to reduce file sizes.
  • Use a content delivery network (CDN) to serve your files from servers closer to users.
  • Enable browser caching to reduce load times for repeat visitors.


With the increasing use of mobile devices, ensuring your website is mobile-friendly is essential. Google employs a mobile-first indexing approach, which means it predominantly uses the mobile version of a site’s content for indexing and ranking.

To optimize for mobile-friendliness:

  • Use a responsive website design that adjusts to various screen sizes.
  • Implement mobile-friendly navigation and user interface elements.
  • Optimize images and media for faster loading on mobile devices.
  • Test your website’s mobile-friendliness using Google’s Mobile-Friendly Test tool.

Secure Connections (HTTPS):

Implementing HTTPS (HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure) on your website encrypts data transferred between the user’s browser and your website, ensuring a secure browsing experience. Google considers HTTPS a ranking factor, making it an essential element of technical SEO.

To transition to HTTPS:

  • Obtain an SSL certificate from a certificate authority (CA).
  • Install the SSL certificate on your web server.
  • Update your website’s internal links and resources to HTTPS.
  • Set up 301 redirects from HTTP to HTTPS versions of your site.

XML Sitemaps:

An XML sitemap is a file that lists all the URLs on your website, helping search engines understand your site’s structure and discover new content. It’s crucial to create and maintain an up-to-date XML sitemap for effective indexing.
To optimize XML sitemaps:

  • Create an XML sitemap using tools like Screaming Frog or Yoast SEO.
  • Include only essential URLs, excluding low-quality or duplicate pages.
  • Update your sitemap whenever new content is added or existing content is updated.
  • Submit your XML sitemap to Google Search Console and Bing Webmaster Tools.

Robots.txt Files:

A robots.txt file instructs search engine crawlers which pages or sections of your website they should or shouldn’t visit. It helps prevent the crawling of low-quality or irrelevant content and ensures crawlers focus on the most valuable pages.
To optimize robots.txt files:

  • Create a robots.txt file in your website’s root directory.
  • Use the “Disallow” directive to block crawlers from accessing specific pages or directories.
  • Test your robots.txt file using Google Search Console’s Robots Testing Tool.
  • Regularly review and update your robots.txt file to reflect changes in your website’s structure.

Structured Data Markup:

Structured data markup, also known as schema markup, is a form of code that helps search engines understand the context and meaning of your content. Implementing structured data can lead to rich snippets in search results, enhancing your website’s visibility and potentially increasing click-through rates.
To optimize structured data markup:

  • Familiarize yourself with vocabulary and identify relevant schema types for your content.
  • Use Google’s Structured Data Markup Helper to generate the appropriate markup for your content.
  • Add the generated markup to your website’s HTML.
  • Test your structured data implementation using Google’s Rich Results Test tool.
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Monitoring and Analysing Website Performance

Google Search Console:

Google Search Console is a free tool that helps you monitor and maintain your website’s presence in Google search results. It provides valuable insights into your website’s performance, indexing status, and any technical issues that may be affecting your search engine visibility.
To use Google Search Console:

  • Sign up for a Google Search Console account and verify your website ownership.
  • Submit your XML sitemap to ensure Google is aware of all your site’s URLs.
  • Monitor the “Performance” report to track your website’s search traffic and ranking positions.
  • Review the “Coverage” report to identify any indexing issues or crawl errors that need to be addressed.

Google Analytics:

Google Analytics is another free tool that helps you analyse your website’s traffic and user behaviour. It provides in-depth insights into how users interact with your site, allowing you to optimize your content and user experience for better search engine performance.
To use Google Analytics:

  • Sign up for a Google Analytics account and install the tracking code on your website.
  • Set up goals to track conversions and other important user actions.
  • Set up goals to track conversions and other important user actions.
  • Review the “Site Speed” report to identify any performance issues that may be affecting user experience and search engine rankings.

Technical SEO is a critical aspect of optimizing your website for search engines, ensuring it’s easily discoverable and offers an optimal user experience. By focusing on factors such as site speed, mobile-friendliness, secure connections, and structured data markup, you can significantly improve your website’s search engine visibility.

Utilizing tools like Google Search Console and Google Analytics will help you monitor and analyse your website’s performance, allowing you to identify and address any technical issues that may be affecting your search engine rankings. As you continue to improve your website’s technical foundation, you’ll be well on your way to achieving SEO success and driving organic traffic to your site. Remember to stay up-to-date with the latest technical SEO best practices and trends, as search engine algorithms are constantly evolving.